• Joint Powers/Inter-governmental Agency

  • Members are water agencies within the Klamath Reclamation Project

  • Provides programs to align water supply and demand generally within the Project

  • Identifies areas for efficient use of energy

  • Exercises authority of a PUD

  • Obtain and provide transmission and delivery of Federal preference power for eligible On-Project and Off-Project Power Users


KWAPA is an interstate, intergovernmental agency formed to:

(1) develop and implement a plan to align water supply and demand for the irrigation districts and landowners generally within the Klamath Reclamation Project on an annual and on-going basis, conduct investigations related to the management of water resources, and generally act to provide beneficial water management; and

(2) to coordinate studies relating to the acquisition of generation and transmission facilities for electrical energy, coordinate transmission service over various facilities, including those of the United States and the charges for such transmission service and the policies governing such transmission, coordinate and maintain reserve generating and transmitting capacity, coordinate the sale of surplus capacity of energy, coordinate the purchase of energy and the allocation of tax credits, funds, and other resources available to offset the cost of electrical energy, and provide coordination in the realization of benefits of any program or activity intended to minimize the overall cost of electricity for irrigation and drainage in the Klamath Reclamation Project.

Current programs include: 


Cooperative Agreement between Dept. of Interior (Bureau of Reclamation) and the Klamath Water and Power Agency.

The objective of WUMP is to allow stakeholders to develop market-based approaches to developing groundwater supplies and other innovative means of providing Klamath Project water supplies.  Supplementation of water for the Klamath Project is necessary due to increased deliveries for fish and wildlife purposes required by ESA.  The additional water maintained in Upper Klamath Lake for suckers and the increased flow requirements in the Klamath River for coho salmon are also causes for the need to supplement water supply.  KWAPA works with the Klamath Basin Bureau of Reclamation Office, Oregon Water Resources Department (OWRD), Klamath Project Irrigation Districts, and others to determine the best value and deliverability of water being made available for Project use. The 2010 program included Land Idling and Groundwater Pumping to supplement water supply as did the 2012 program.



The 2015 Demand Management program is consistent with the management strategy of the Water Users Mitigation Program (WUMP) Cooperative Agreement between Klamath Water and Power Agency (KWAPA) and the Bureau of Reclamation. This program is based on the projected need to decrease the demand and/or diversion of surface water in the Klamath Reclamation Project. 

At this time it is not known whether a Demand Management program will be necessary, but in the event that precipitation received and the trajectory of filling Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Clear Lake, and/or Gerber Reservoir indicates a potential shortage, this program may be implemented at the direction of the KWAPA Board of Directors and Bureau of Reclamation.  KWAPA will plan for the maximum probable shortage and adapt as necessary, utilizing Groundwater Pumping to the extent appropriate, and taking into consideration the goal of providing the most water for the most acres, a Demand Management Program to balance the supply and demand may be implemented.   

A shortage in supply of water means that some land will not be properly irrigated. The purpose of the Demand Management Program is to provide assistance to irrigators who are willing to forego some or all irrigation of their land to help others produce a full crop. 

Any payment provided by this Program is not intended to fully compensate for the value of lost crop or the value of the use of the water which the participant agrees to forego. 

The size of the Demand Management program will be determined upon review of Reclamation’s forecast of surface water supply and the amount of groundwater available through sustainable groundwater pumping.  







Cooperative Agreement between Dept. of Interior (Bureau of Reclamation) and the Klamath Water and Power Agency.

The purpose of the Agreement is to address issues facing the irrigators of the Klamath Project relating to the terms of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA).  Section 15.2.1 of the KBRA states “the purpose of the On Project Plan for the Klamath Reclamation Project is to align water supply and demand…” see document at:  http://kwua.org/sites/kwua.org/files/k.pdf.

Representatives of the diverse communities in the Klamath Basin, working with federal, state, and county governments, have developed the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) to rebuild fisheries, sustain agricultural communities, and resolve longstanding disputes related to the allocation of water resources.  Relevant key provisions of the KBRA include: 

  • An ultimate limitation on diversion of water from Upper Klamath Lake and the Klamath River for certain lands in the Klamath Reclamation Project (KBRA section 15.3.1.A and Appendix E‑1).

  • Reliability and certainty regarding water that will be available for a sustainable agricultural community and national wildlife refuges.


In order for the water user community to be able to operate their business successfully, while coping with the negotiated limitation on water diversions described in the first bullet point above, the KBRA parties also provided for the development of the “On Project Plan” (KBRA section 15).


As per the requirements of the KBRA, KWAPA is charged with developing and implementing the On Project Plan (OPP). The purpose of the OPP is to reduce the need for diversion of water from Upper Klamath Lake and the Klamath River to align water use in the Klamath Reclamation Project to targets set in the KBRA. It is the goal of KWAPA to accomplish this purpose with the least reduction in crops produced.

This Plan will align water supply and demand within the Klamath Project and will include elements of at least the following:

  • Conservation.  The current overall project efficiency is estimated to be 93% and therefore, is not a lot of water to be made available through conservation.  While there are instances where an individual farm may be very inefficient, conservation on that farm may have the net result of less water available on another farm and no net gain in availability of water.  KWAPA will have to be very cautious that funds spent on conservation result in an actual net gain in water supply.

  • Additional storage.  This source of water has significant problems.  It is costly to build.  Availability of water for storage is highly uncertain.  Stored water may be lost to evaporation and seepage before it is needed.  The only instances where additional storage seems to make sense is in the case where there is a partnership to build storage for fisheries, water quality along with irrigation storage.

  • Use of ground water for supplemental irrigation.  While parts of the Klamath Basin appear to have abundant ground water, the impact of ground water pumping on surface water flows is not yet determined.  While ground water pumping will be a key component in the On-Project Plan, the extent to which it will fill the gap is yet to be determined.

  • Forbearance agreements.  It is anticipated there will be some form of payment for reduced surface water allotment on years where anticipated supplies are not adequate.  A forbearance agreement could be a permanent one-time payment for the right to call a percentage of an irrigator’s allotment, or a year by year purchase of allotment.  It is not the intent to permanently dry up any land with a Project water right.


KWAPA recently solicited for Statement of Qualifications from qualified engineering firms.  The KWAPA OPP Review Committee interviewed the top 3 qualified firms who submitted a proposal and the Board of Directors approved the top scoring firm.

KWAPA awarded a consultant contract in July 2011 to MBK Engineers and partnering firms (Houston Engineering, CH2MHILL and Dan Keppen & Associates) to take lead on the development of the On Project Plan.

 The OPP is being developed on a “build-as-you-go” approach to accommodate input from its irrigation constituents, partners, and OPP stakeholders.  They will achieve this by using a series of Technical Memorandums (TMs) that will build upon one another and culminate in a summary document.  The OPP Work Group recently completed TM1, which was unanimously approved by the OPPAC in September and is awaiting approval of the KWAPA Board of Directors at the November Board meeting.  See OPP Work Group and OPPAC member lists below.

TM1 discusses the following:

  • Mission Statement/Goals and Objectives
  • Key Issues
  • On Project Plan Development Approach
  • Communication Plan
  • Existing Data Sources
  • Proposed National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)/California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) Approach









On Project Plan Work Group

Hollie Cannon (KWAPA)

Cathy Waters (KWAPA)

Greg Addington (KWUA)

Ed Bair (KWAPA and Klamath Basin Iirrigation District)

Dave Cacka (Klamath Irrigation District)

Bill Heiney (KWAPA and Tulelake Irrigation District)

Bill Ganong (KWAPA Legal Counsel)

Paul Simmons (KWUA & KWAPA Legal Counsel)

Marc Van Camp – Consultant Team (MBK Engineers)

Mark Deutschman – Consultant Team (Houston Engineering, Inc.)

Mark Oliver – Consultant Team (CH2MHILL)

Dan Keppen – Consultant Team (Dan Keppen & Associates)


On Project Plan Advisory Committee

The purpose of the OPPAC is to assist with the developing the OPP using an open, transparent and collaborative inter-district approach.  The OPPAC will provide guidance and advice to KWAPA staff and consultants during preparation of the OPP.  The OPPAC will also make recommendations as needed to the KWPA Board of Directors, including whether to approve and accept the final OPP.

OPPAC Members:

District Member

Enterprise Shane McDonald
KBID Ed Bair
Klamath Drainage Dist Luther Horsley
Klamath Hills  Rocky Liskey
Klamath ID Dave Cacka
Malin ID Luke Robison
Pine Grove n/a
Pioneer  Curt Mullis
Poe Valley Jason Chapman
Shasta View ID Gary Derry
Sunny Side Pat Patterson
Tulelake ID Earl Danosky
Van Brimmer David Jensen
Westside Steve Kandra


For further developments and insight to the project, please see the OPPortunities Volume I newsletter:

October 2011 OPPortunities newsletter, Volume I, Issue I

February 2012 OPPortunities Newsletter, Volume I, Issue 2

 April 2012 OPPortunities Newsletter, Volume I, Issue 3

September 2012 OPPortunities Newsletter, Volume I, Issue 4

 March 2013 OPPortunities Newsletter, Volume 1, Issue 5

December 2013 OPPortunities Newsletter, Volume I, Issue 6